跨大西洋贸易走向全球

斯坦福—美国和欧盟之间的跨大西洋贸易和投资伙伴关系(TTIP)谈判已经开始,这将成为有史以来最大的地区自由贸易协定。如果成功的话,它将覆盖全球40%以上的GDP和世界贸易和外国直接投资的很大一部分。美国和欧盟雄心勃勃地准备在2014年底前完成谈判。但是,从历史上看,大部分贸易协定需要长得多的时间才能完成。

TTIP的规模是庞大的。随着7月初克罗地亚的入盟,目前欧盟已拥有28个成员国,基于比较优势、历史和国内政治实力,每个国家都有自身的贸易促进和保护方面的利益。

此外,协定所欲覆盖的范围十分广泛,这使谈判过程进一步复杂化了。TTIP将取消所有贸易关税壁垒、减少非关税壁垒(包括农业方面);扩大服务贸易的市场准入;引入更紧密的监管协调;强化知识产权保护;限制对国有企业的补贴;等等。所有这些都决定了谈判将十分艰难;事实上,法国已经要求并获得了电影和电视的“文化例外”。

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