Jennifer Kohnke

El impacto global de la crisis de la vivienda de los Estados Unidos

CAMBRIDGE- El estallido de la burbuja inmobiliaria en los Estados Unidos en el verano de 2006 desencadenó la crisis y la recesión financieras globales. La abrupta caída de los precios de la vivienda que le sucedió causó un descenso espectacular en el patrimonio de las unidades familiares, lo que condujo a un menor gasto en el consumo y a una disminución global del PIB. En estos momentos, el patrimonio en la forma de viviendas propias ha disminuido aproximadamente en un 30%, lo que equivale a pérdidas de más de 6 billones de dólares en la riqueza de las unidades familiares.

La caída de los precios de la vivienda también condujo a un drástico aumento de los impagos y embargos hipotecarios, lo que ha provocado el crecimiento de la oferta de viviendas en el mercado y una mayor caída de los precios en ese sector. Como resultado, un tercio del total de los propietarios estadounidenses de viviendas ya tienen deudas hipotecarias que superan el valor de su vivienda. En una sexta parte de estos hogares la deuda es 20% mayor que el precio de la casa.

Adicionalmente, la alta relación crédito-valor en los Estados Unidos interactúa con los problemas financieros de las unidades familiares de forma que aumenta el número de impagos y embargos hipotecarios. Más específicamente, la creciente tasa de desempleo, junto con el gran número de empleados con trabajos de tiempo parcial involuntario, ha hecho crecer el número de personas que no cuentan con los medios para afrontar sus pagos hipotecarios mensuales.

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