Jennifer Kohnke

Die globalen Auswirkungen der amerikanischen Immobilienkrise

CAMBRIDGE – Als im Sommer 2006 in den USA die Immobilienblase platzte, löste dies die globale Finanzkrise und Rezession aus. Der darauf folgende starke Preisverfall verursachte einen dramatischen Rückgang der Privatvermögen, was wiederum zu niedrigeren Verbraucherausgaben und einem allgemeinen Rückgang des Bruttoinlandprodukts führte. Heute ist das Hauseigentum um 30 Prozent gesunken, was einem Rückgang der Privatvermögen von über sechs Billionen Dollar entspricht.

Der Verfall der Immobilienpreise hat auch zu einem steilen Anstieg der Hypothekenausfälle und Zwangsvollstreckungen geführt, wodurch das Immobilienangebot auf dem Markt angestiegen ist und die Immobilienpreise weiter gesunken sind. Aufgrund dessen ist ein Drittel der US-amerikanischen Hauseigentümer mit Hypotheken bereits „unter Wasser“, d. h. ihre Hypothekenschuld ist höher als der Wert ihrer Häuser. Bei einem Sechstel von ihnen ist die Schuld 20 Prozent höher als der Preis ihrer Immobilie.

Zudem bewirken die hohen Beleihungssätze, also das Verhältnis des Darlehens zum Wert der Immobilie, in den USA, dass sich finanzielle Probleme der Haushalte verschärfen und die Anzahl der Ausfälle und Zwangsvollstreckungen erhöht. Besonders die steigende Arbeitslosenquote, zusammen mit der hohen Anzahl an Kurzarbeitern, hat die Anzahl derjenigen in die Höhe getrieben, die ihre monatlichen Hypothekenzahlungen nicht mehr leisten können.

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