Jennifer Kohnke

Crise de l’immobilier aux Etats-Unis, répercussions dans le monde

CAMBRIDGE – L’éclatement, durant l’été 2006, de la bulle immobilière aux Etats-Unis a provoqué la crise financière mondiale et la récession. Le marché de l’immobilier en chute libre qui a suivi a causé une contraction spectaculaire du patrimoine des ménages, menant à une consommation plus faible et une baisse générale du PIB. Depuis, le patrimoine immobilier des ménages a chuté de 30 %, ce qui revient à une perte de plus de 6 milliards de dollars.

La chute du prix de l’immobilier a aussi généré une forte augmentation des défauts de paiement et des saisies, faisant accroître le nombre de logements disponibles sur le marché et faisant davantage reculer les prix. Par conséquent, un tiers des propriétaires états-uniens par emprunt hypothécaire ont déjà « coulé » – le montant qu’ils doivent rembourser excède la valeur de leur maison. Dans un cas sur six pour ces ménages, la dette est de 20 % supérieure au prix de leur logement.

En outre, le ratio très élevé emprunt-valeur s’ajoute aux finances désastreuses des foyers américains, causant une hausse du nombre des saisies et manquements. Pour être plus précis, le taux de chômage à la hausse, combiné au grand nombre de personnes employées à temps partiel contre leur gré, a fait monter le nombre de personnes à court de moyens pour rembourser les mensualités de leur emprunt hypothécaire.

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