Мировая экономика желаний

Должны ли беспокоиться развитые страны по поводу перемещения обрабатывающей промышленности в Китай, а разработки и производства программного обеспечения в Индию? Страх потери рабочих мест за счет перемещения производства в страны с дешевой рабочей силой играет на популистских чувствах, но упускает из виду основной момент, а именно то, что процветание развитых стран зависит главным образом от предпринимательства.

В конце концов, ни одна экономика не способна бесконечно повышать уровень жизни населения посредством инноваций, увеличивающих эффективность производства существующей продукции. В краткосрочной перспективе повышение эффективности производства приводит к понижению стоимости товаров и услуг, позволяя увеличить их потребление. Однако со временем потребители отказываются покупать больше даже при продолжающемся падении цен. В таких случаях дальнейшая эффективность требует сокращения количества работников, занятых на производстве.

Создание и удовлетворение новых желаний и потребностей потребителей позволяет системе продолжать свое существование путем поглощения рабочей силы и покупательной способности, высвобожденной более эффективным удовлетворением старых желаний и потребностей. На другом конце этого процесса, производители, удовлетворяющие старые желания потребителей, продолжают стремиться к снижению стоимости производства, поскольку им приходится бороться за работников и потребителей с производителями, удовлетворяющими новые желания.

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