Globální ekonomika tužby

Nakolik by se měly rozvinuté země znepokojovat nad outsourcingem výrobních kapacit do Číny nebo vývoje softwaru do Indie? Obava ze ztráty pracovních míst ve prospěch zemí s nízkou úrovní mezd hraje na populistickou strunu, ale nebere v úvahu jednu klíčovou okolnost: prosperita rozvinutých zemí závisí zejména na podnikatelském duchu.

Žádná ekonomika totiž nemůže donekonečna zvyšovat životní úroveň prostřednictvím inovací, které zefektivňují výrobu již existujícího zboží. Z krátkodobého hlediska redukuje zvýšení efektivity náklady na určité zboží nebo službu, takže jí lidé spotřebovávají více. Nakonec však spotřebitelé odmítnou kupovat ještě více téhož zboží či služby, i když jeho cena nadále klesá. Jakmile k tomu dojde, neobejde se již další zvýšení efektivity bez propouštění zaměstnanců.

Systém pak udržuje v chodu tvorba a uspokojování nových tužeb spotřebitelů, jež absorbuje pracovní a kupní sílu uvolněnou díky stále efektivnějšímu uspokojování tužeb starých. Na druhém konci tohoto procesu pokračují výrobci uspokojující staré tužby v ekonomizaci, neboť vedou konkurenční boj o zaměstnance a spotřebitele s výrobci uspokojujícími tužby nové.

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