El caso de Alemania contra el BCE

MÚNICH – El Tribunal Constitucional de Alemania está preparando la decisión que puede llegar a ser la más importante de su historia. En septiembre pasado, el tribunal permitió al gobierno alemán la firma del tratado que establece el Mecanismo Europeo de Estabilidad (MEDE), el organismo intergubernamental permanente de rescate para la zona del euro. Ahora, sin embargo, puede intentar detener el programa de transacciones monetarias directas (TMD) del Banco Central Europeo (el compromiso del BCE para comprar, ilimitadamente, los bonos gubernamentales de los países en problemas de la zona del euro que se avengan a las condiciones del MEDE).

Por cierto, el tribunal alemán no tiene jurisdicción sobre el BCE –y por lo tanto, no tiene poder para juzgar sus acciones. La única institución que sí cuenta con ese poder es el Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea en Luxemburgo. Pero el Tribunal Constitucional de Alemania puede juzgar si las acciones de las instituciones de la UE son compatibles con su constitución y los tratados de la Unión Europea.

Si el tribunal encuentra que las acciones del BCE son ilegales, puede obligar a las instituciones alemanas –incluso al parlamento alemán. Por ejemplo, podría prohibir al Bundesbank su participación en el programa de las TMD. O podría dictaminar que la participación del gobierno alemán en el MEDE debe supeditarse a la voluntad del BCE para limitar las TMD. Udo Di Fabio, un renombrado exjuez del tribunal, ha sostenido que la corte podría incluso obligar al gobierno alemán a deshacer los tratados de la UE si no tiene éxito en frenar el programa de TMD.

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