Německé argumenty proti ECB

MNICHOV – Německý ústavní soud připravuje rozhodnutí, které se může stát nejdůležitějším verdiktem v jeho dějinách. Loni v září soud umožnil německé vládě podepsat Smlouvu zakládající Evropský stabilizační mechanismus (ESM), stálou mezivládní záchrannou instituci eurozóny. Teď se ale možná pokusí zastavit program takzvaných přímých měnových transakcí (OMT), jímž se ECB zavazuje neomezeně nakupovat státní dluhopisy rozkolísaných zemí eurozóny, které se podrobí podmínkám ESM.

Ovšemže německý soud nemá soudní pravomoc nad ECB – a nemůže tedy soudit její činy. Jedinou institucí s takovou pravomocí je Evropský soudní dvůr v Lucemburku. Německý ústavní soud ale může posoudit, zda je konání institucí EU v souladu s německou ústavou a smlouvami Evropské unie.

Pokud sezná, že jednání ECB je v rozporu se zákonem, může stanovit meze postupu německých institucí – dokonce i německého parlamentu. Mohl by například Bundesbance zakázat účast v programu OMT. Nebo by mohl rozhodnout, že účast německé vlády v ESM musí být podmíněna ochotou ECB rozsah OMT omezit. Renomovaný bývalý ústavní soudce Udo Di Fabio prohlásil, že soud by dokonce mohl přinutit německou vládu, aby rozvázala smlouvy s EU, nepodaří-li se jí program OMT dostat do jistých mezí.

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