德国反对欧洲央行的理由

发自慕尼黑--德国宪法法庭正准备做的决定可能会是其史上最重要的一次。去年九月,该法庭批准德国政府签署了建立欧洲稳定机制(ESM)条约,该机制是欧元区内永久性政府救助机构。而如今该法庭可能会阻止欧洲央行实施所谓的直接货币交易计划(OMT)(欧洲央行在该计划中保证,任何符合ESM条件的受灾欧元区成员国,欧洲央行都会无上限地购买其国债)。

的确,德国宪法法庭对欧洲央行并无裁判权,所以也没权力去审判欧洲央行的行为。唯一有此权力的是位于卢森堡的欧洲法院。不过,德国宪法法庭有权判定欧盟各机构的行为是否符合其宪法和其它欧盟条约。

如果德国宪法法庭认为欧洲央行的行为不合法,那么它可以约束德国机构的行为,甚至是德国议会。比如说,它可以禁止德意志联邦银行参加OMT计划;或者它可以规定德国政府在ESM的参与程度视欧洲央行降低OMT计划效力的意愿而定。德国宪法法庭一位极有声望的前法官乌多·迪·法比奥(Udo Di Fabio)认为,如果审判团无法约束OMT计划的效力,甚至可以要求德国政府退出欧盟各类协议。

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