足球的地缘政治

在足球运动中,失败并非万劫不复,但绝对激动人心。对足球爱好者来说,国际足联(国际足球运动的管理机构)老早就应该被授予诺贝尔和平奖。而在其他对足球及其激起的情感感到恼火的人看来,这项运动已经不再是一种比赛,而是一种战争,一种能煽起最低级的民族主义情感的战争。

足球(乃至所有体育运动)和民族主义及黩武主义的精神之间是否存在一种联系?中世纪的时候,体育运动在英格兰一般是遭到禁止的,因为开展了体育活动就无法进行军事训练。法国在普法战争中被俾斯麦时期的德国击败后,皮埃尔·德·顾拜旦男爵(他在数十年后复兴了奥运会)建议全国重新重视体育运动。这时的体育运动被视为一种备战方式。

足球比赛的仪式——挥旗、国歌、集体吟唱——以及使用的语言(比赛开始是“开战”,射门是“轰炸”,冲破防御是“炸开”,远射是“发射导弹”)加强了战争的概念。事实上,足球的确引起过战争。1969年,洪都拉斯和萨尔瓦多在世界杯资格赛之后就发生了冲突。

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