Étrangers au pays ?

La migration reste l'aspect de la mondialisation qui n'ose pas se montrer, pour paraphraser Oscar Wilde. Les défenseurs de la mondialisation ne font qu'effleurer le sujet de peur de voir resurgir les politiques favorisant la population autochtone d'un pays aux dépens des immigrants. Les opposants respectables de la mondialisation l'évitent de peur de se faire étiqueter comme racistes ou insensibles aux maux des populations les plus pauvres au monde.

Ce silence n'est pas uniquement un manque de sincérité : il est assurément dangereux. En théorie, l'intégration économique mondiale implique un monde où les marchés des denrées, des services, du capital et du travail sont parfaitement intégrés. Bien que de nombreux marchés soient aujourd'hui ouverts, même si d'autres restent faussés par le protectionnisme, comme le marché de l'agriculture par exemple, l'intégration du marché mondial du travail a été délaissée dans le processus de la mondialisation.

Cela n'est guère surprenant. Pendant des siècles les gouvernements se sont toujours préoccupé de protéger « leurs » propres défavorisés et leurs travailleurs sans qualification contre la concurrence des immigrants. Ces inquiétudes sont bien sûr rapidement reléguées dès que les pays s'enrichissent et que les travailleurs nationaux ne veulent plus se consacrer à des tâches subalternes. L'histoire de la plupart des grandes migrations vers les États-Unis aux 19ème et 20ème siècle correspond à ce modèle. De même que les vagues d'immigration indo-pakistanaise et afro-antillaise de Grande-Bretagne qui suivirent la défaite de l'Empire britannique après la Seconde guerre mondiale, et l'immigration algérienne en France ou turque en Allemagne durant les années de boom économique dans les années 1960.

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