La gaspromización de la seguridad energética europea

En Europa se ha secuestrado el término “seguridad energética” para dar poder a los proveedores y debilitar a los importadores, lo que entraña una drástica reducción de la competencia, una mayor vulnerabilidad política y la erosión del Estado de Derecho. El hecho de que Dimitry Medvedev, el probable sucesor del Presidente Vladimir Putin, sea el Presidente de Gazprom despeja todas las dudas sobre la determinación del Kremlin de mantener sujeto con puño de hierro el sector de la energía, pero hay que poner fin a la asimetría en las relaciones Unión Europea-Rusia en materia de energía.

Nunca habían sido mayores en la UE las preocupaciones por la seguridad energética, alimentadas por la dependencia cada vez mayor de Rusia. La expropiación de la compañía petrolera Yukos por parte de las autoridades rusas ha ido acompañada de la expulsión de los extranjeros del sector de la extracción de energía. Inevitablemente, muchos en Europa ponen en entredicho el valor de la palabra del Kremlin.

En lugar de apartarse, la UE debe intentar conseguir un compromiso y una reciprocidad mayores. Debe facilitar una mayor participación de Gazprom en el mercado de la UE mediante la liberalización del mercado y la integración de las fases finales de la producción, pero también debe presionar en última instancia en pro de la reestructuración de Gazprom y la entrada real en el mercado ruso de las compañías europeas, porque la renuencia de Rusia al respecto garantiza la inseguridad energética para Europa.

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