L’influence de Gazprom sur la sécurité énergétique européenne

Les mots « sécurité énergétique » en Europe ont été détournés à l’avantage des fournisseurs et aux dépens des importateurs, entraînant une baisse dramatique de la concurrence, une augmentation de la vulnérabilité politique et une érosion de l’état de droit. Le fait que le successeur probable de Vladimir Poutine, Dimitri Medvedev, soit le président de Gazprom laisse peu de doutes quant à la détermination du Kremlin à conserver un contrôle sans faille sur le secteur énergétique. Mais l’asymétrie des relations entre l’Europe et la Russie au plan énergétique doit cesser.

Les préoccupations concernant la sécurité énergétique au sein de l’UE, alimentées par une dépendance croissante envers la Russie, n’ont jamais été aussi fortes. En même temps que l’expropriation de la compagnie pétrolière Ioukos par les autorités russes, les sociétés étrangères ont été évincées du secteur de l’extraction en Russie. Sans surprise, nombreux sont ceux aujourd’hui en Europe qui doutent de la parole du Kremlin.

Mais au lieu de se retirer, l’UE doit chercher à approfondir les engagements et la réciprocité des échanges. Elle doit encourager une plus grande intégration de Gazprom dans le marché de l’UE par une libéralisation du marché et une intégration en aval. Elle doit toutefois exiger aussi une restructuration de Gazprom et un véritable accès au marché russe pour les sociétés occidentales, parce que la réticence de la Russie dans ce domaine est source d’insécurité énergétique pour l’Europe.

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