Barrie Maguire

El futuro de Europa

CAMBRIDGE – En la primera mitad del siglo pasado, Europa se hizo pedazos en dos guerras y destruyó su papel fundamental en la política mundial. En la segunda mitad del siglo, unos dirigentes con amplitud de miras renunciaron a la venganza y fueron construyendo poco a poco las instituciones de la integración europea. La idea de que Francia y Alemania vuelvan a enfrentarse en combates parece imposible y el desarrollo de la Unión Europea ha intensificado en gran medida el atractivo de Europa y el poder blando en el mundo. Lamentablemente, ahora se está poniendo en entredicho ese histórico logro.

En mayo de 2010, los mercados financieros perdieron la confianza en la capacidad de Grecia para gestionar su déficit presupuestario y amortizar su deuda. Los temores a la quiebra empezaron a afectar a otros países, como, por ejemplo, Portugal y España, entre los 16 miembros de la zona del euro. La reacción de los gobiernos europeos, el Banco Central Europeo y el Fondo Monetario Internacional fue la de preparar un programa de rescate de emergencia de la zona del euro, que asciende a 700.000 millones de euros, para calmar las tormentas financieras.

Si bien esa intervención aportó un respiro temporal, la incertidumbre persiste en los mercados financieros. El mes pasado, la Canciller alemana, Angela Merkel, declaró que, si fracasa el euro, “no sólo fracasa la moneda... fracasará Europa y, con ella, la idea de la unidad europea”.

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