Barrie Maguire

L’avenir de l’Europe

CAMBRIDGE – Dans la première moitié du siècle dernier, l’Europe s’est déchirée dans deux guerres et a réduit en poussière son rôle central dans la politique mondiale. Dans la seconde moitié du siècle dernier, des responsables politiques inspirés sont passés outre le sentiment de revanche et ont bâti étape par étape les institutions de l’intégration européenne. L’idée que la France et l’Allemagne puissent encore une fois se combattre parait impossible et le développement de l’Union Européenne a largement contribué à l’attrait et la puissance douce de l’Europe dans le monde. Cet accomplissement historique est malheureusement aujourd’hui remis en question.

En mai 2010, les marchés financiers ont perdu confiance dans la capacité de la Grèce à gérer son déficit budgétaire et à rembourser sa dette. Les craintes d’un défaut commencèrent à affecter d’autres pays, comme le Portugal et l’Espagne, parmi les 16 membres de la zone euro. En réponse, les gouvernements européens, la Banque Centrale Européenne et le Fond Monétaire International ont mis au point un plan de sauvetage d’urgence de 700 milliards d’euros pour apaiser la tourmente financière.

Cette intervention a octroyé un répit temporaire mais les incertitudes persistent sur les marchés financiers. Le mois dernier, la Chancelière allemande Angela Merkel a déclaré que si l’euro échoue, « alors ce ne sera pas seulement l’échec de la monnaie… mais aussi l’échec de l’Europe, et avec lui, l’idée d’une unité européenne. »

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