Paul Lachine

L’avenir de la croissance de la Chine

BEIJING – Le ralentissement de l’économie de la Chine a fait les manchettes ces dernières semaines. Que ce soubresaut soit permanent ou temporaire, les autorités chinoises ont beaucoup à faire pour préparer le terrain d’une performance économique soutenue à moyen et long terme.

Malgré sa formidable croissance depuis le changement de cap de 1979 vers l’économie de marché, la Chine est confrontée d’un coup à de graves enjeux: une inégalité grandissante, un niveau élevé et croissant de détérioration de l’environnement, un déséquilibre extérieur tenace et une société vieillissante.

Heureusement, le 12e Plan quinquennal 2011-2015 de la Chine tient déjà compte de la nécessité d’orienter encore plus l’économie du pays vers le marché, de changer le modèle de développement du pays et mettre l’accent sur la croissance de qualité, les réformes structurelles et l’inclusion sociale pour surmonter le clivage entre les conditions de vie rurale et urbaine et endiguer l’augmentation de l’inégalité des revenus. Le nouveau rapport de la Banque Mondiale intitulé 2030: Building a Modern, Harmonious, and Creative High-Income Society(Construire pour 2030 une société prospère, moderne, harmonieuse et créative) dans lequel sont proposées des réformes en diapason avec cette audacieuse démarche de longue haleinedont mon pays a besoin pour se transformer en une économie de marché aux rouages bien huilés et à pleine maturité d’ici 2030.

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