El síndrome de Fukushima

BIRMINGHAM – Comúnmente, se hace referencia a los dramáticos acontecimientos que se desarrollaron en la central nuclear Daiichi de Fukushima después del maremoto del año pasado como “el desastre de Fukushima”. Basta con esa descripción para empezar a entender los importantes malentendidos que rodean a la energía nuclear.

Fue el maremoto, causado por el mayor terremoto que haya padecido jamás el Japón, que causó la muerte de más de 16.000 personas, destruyó o dañó unos 125.000 edificios y dejó el país ante la crisis más grave, según la calificó su Primer Ministro, desde la segunda guerra mundial. Sin embargo, a Fukushima es a la que se suele aplicar la etiqueta de “desastre”.

En realidad, aunque lo que ocurrió fue espantoso, se podrían interpretar los acontecimientos habidos en las horas y los días posteriores al choque de una ola gigantesca contra el muro marino de protección de la central nuclear como un notable testimonio de las sólidas credenciales de una central nuclear. Desde luego, las repercusiones medioambientales en quienes viven cerca de Fukushima pueden tardar muchos años en remediarse, pero la reacción en muchas partes –en particular, en Alemania, Suiza y otros países que inmediatamente condenaron y abandonaron la energía nuclear– demostraron la persistente falta de conocimientos sobre dos cuestiones fundamentales.

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