A Síndrome de Fukushima

BIRMINGHAM - Os acontecimentos dramáticos que se desenrolaram na central nuclear japonesa de Fukushima Daiichi, depois do tsunami do ano passado, são geralmente referidos como “o desastre de Fukushima”. Basta olhar para esta descrição para começarmos a entender os equívocos significativos que rodeiam a energia nuclear.

Foi o tsunami, causado pelo maior terramoto que alguma vez atingiu o Japão, que matou mais de 16 mil pessoas, destruiu ou danificou cerca de 125 mil edifícios e deixou o país enfrentar o que o seu primeiro-ministro descreveu como a maior crise desde a II Guerra Mundial. No entanto, é a Fukushima que se atribui habitualmente o rótulo de “desastre”.

Na verdade, embora o que aconteceu tenha sido chocante, os acontecimentos das horas e dias que se seguiram após uma onda gigante golpear o paredão protector da central nuclear, podem ser interpretados como um testemunho notável às sólidas credenciais da energia nuclear. Para ter a certeza, o impacte ambiental sobre os seres vivos que habitavam perto de Fukushima pode levar muitos anos para ser reparado. Mas a resposta em muitos lugares - nomeadamente na Alemanha, na Suíça e em outros países que condenaram imediatamente e recuaram em relação à energia nuclear - mais uma vez tipificou a duradoura falta de conhecimento referente a duas questões fundamentais.

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