Las fronteras de la electricidad

SINGAPUR – En el mundo hay casi 1.500 millones de personas sin acceso a la electricidad, más de la mitad de ellas en la región de Asia y el Pacífico. Lamentablemente, en el mundo actual es casi imposible encontrar actividades viables y productoras de ingresos sin acceso a la electricidad.

Las tecnologías de las energías renovables (TER) son inestimables para quienes viven fuera de los límites de las redes eléctricas. Según los cálculos de la Red de políticas sobre energías renovables para el siglo XXI (REN21), en todo el planeta hay decenas de millones de hogares rurales que cuentan con energía renovable, pero siguen representando una simple gota en el océano.

¿Por qué no llega la red eléctrica a dichos hogares, en primer lugar? Para empezar, suelen estar situados en aldeas remotas, en las que el acceso a la red resulta prohibitivo. Los gobiernos carecen tanto de los medios como de la motivación para hacerlo, dada la imposibilidad de recuperar los costos de llevar la electricidad hasta los habitantes de aldeas pobres, con frecuencia porque los precios subvencionados de la electricidad reducen los ingresos. En algunos casos, tiene sentido ampliar la red después de eliminar esas distorsiones, pero en los casos en los que las aldeas y los hogares se encuentran en lugares demasiado remotos, esa ampliación nunca tendrá sentido económico.

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