La línea del frente de la democracia

BENGASI – Esta semana, me trasladé a Bengasi para reunirme con el Consejo Nacional de Transición (CNT) de Libia, visita coordinada con la Alta Representante de la Unión Europea, Catherine Ashton, y los aliados de la OTAN. He sido el primer ministro de Asuntos Exteriores occidental que ha viajado a Libia desde que comenzó la crisis. Lo que vi me recordó a mi país hace veinte años, justo después de las primeras elecciones libres de Polonia, que, junto con la caída del Muro de Berlín apenas seis meses después, llegaron a simbolizar el fin de la Guerra Fría.

Los pueblos en transición a partir de un gobierno autoritario –de forma pacífica en Polonia en 1989 y sangrienta en Libia hoy– se debaten ante decisiones que determinan su destino durante decenios. ¿Cómo se debe tratar a los peores malhechores y a la policía de seguridad, con sus insidiosos archivos, del régimen anterior? ¿Se debe prohibir el antiguo partido gobernante? ¿Cómo se puede asegurar el control democrático y civil del ejército y la policía? ¿Qué papel debe desempeñar la religión en los asuntos públicos? ¿Debe la Constitución establecer un sistema presidencialista o uno parlamentario?

El antiguo mundo comunista eligió entre esas opciones hace veinte años, pero en Polonia, Hungría y Checoslovaquia, en los Estados bálticos, en toda la antigua Unión Soviética, en el Asia central y en la Alemania oriental se eligieron opciones muy diferentes, para bien o para mal. Los resultados constituyen una decisiva base de datos de la experiencia. Así, los reformadores árabes de hoy pueden aprovechar nuestros éxitos y evitar nuestros errores.

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