Der Kampf um Demokratie

BENGASI – Diese Woche flog ich nach Bengasi, wo ich mit dem libyschen Nationalen Übergangsrat zusammentraf. Dieser Besuch war mit der Hohen Repräsentantin der EU, Catherine Ashton, und den NATO-Alliierten abgesprochen. Ich war der erste westliche Außenminister, der nach Ausbruch der Krise nach Libyen reiste. Was ich dort sah erinnerte mich an mein eigenes Land vor 20 Jahren, kurz nach den ersten freien Wahlen in Polen, die zusammen mit dem Fall der Berliner Mauer sechs Monate später zu einem Symbol für das Ende des Kalten Krieges wurden.

Völker, die gerade ihre autoritären Herrscher abschütteln – friedlich in Polen in 1989, blutig in Libyen heute – müssen Entscheidungen treffen, die ihr Schicksal über Jahrzehnte bestimmen. Wie soll mit den schlimmsten Übeltätern und der Sicherheitspolizei sowie deren infamen Archiven umgegangen werden? Soll die frühere herrschende Partei verboten werden? Wie ist eine zivile und demokratische Kontrolle von Polizei und Armee zu gewährleisten? Welche Rolle sollte die Religion im öffentlichen Leben spielen? Soll mit der Verfassung ein präsidentielles oder ein parlamentarisches System etabliert werden?

In der ehemaligen kommunistischen Welt wurden diese Entscheidungen vor 20 Jahren getroffen. Sie fielen in Polen, Ungarn, der Tschechoslowakei, in den baltischen Staaten, in der ehemaligen Sowjetunion, in Zentralasien und in Ostdeutschland sehr unterschiedlich aus  – im guten wie im schlechten Sinne. Die Folgen dieser Entscheidungen bilden eine zentrale Datenbank an Erfahrungen. Die arabischen Reformer von heute können von unseren Erfolgen lernen – und unsere Fehler vermeiden.  

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