Le front de la démocratie

BENGHAZI – Cette semaine, je me suis envolé pour Benghazi afin de rencontrer le Conseil National de Transition (CNT) de la Libye, une visite coordonnée avec la Haute Représentante de l’Union Européenne, Catherine Ashton et les alliés de l’OTAN. J’étais le premier ministre des affaires étrangères occidental à se rendre en Libye depuis le début de la crise. Ce que j’ai vu m’a rappelé mon pays il y a vingt ans, juste après les premières élections libres en Pologne, lesquelles, associées à la chute du mur de Berlin à peine six mois auparavant, avaient symbolisé la fin de la guerre froide.

Les peuples en transition d’un régime autoritaire – pacifique en Pologne en 1989, sanglant en Libye aujourd’hui – doivent assumer des décisions lourdes de conséquences à long terme sur leur destin. Comment doit-on traiter les pires malfaiteurs et les services de police du précédent régime, et leurs archives insidieuses ? Comment assurer un contrôle civil démocratique de l’armée et de la police ? Quel rôle la religion doit-elle jouer dans les affaires publiques ? La Constitution devrait-elle établir un système présidentiel ou parlementaire ?

L’ancien monde communiste a dû faire ces choix il y a vingt ans. Mais des choix très différents – pour le meilleur et pour le pire – ont été faits en Pologne, en Hongrie et en Tchécoslovaquie, dans les états Baltes, dans l’ensemble de l’ancienne Union Soviétique, en Asie Centrale et en Allemagne de l’Est. Les résultats constituent une base de données d’expériences cruciale. Les réformateurs Arabes d’aujourd’hui peuvent donc s’inspirer de nos succès – et éviter nos erreurs.

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