民主的前沿

发自班加西——本周我在欧盟高级代表凯瑟琳·阿什顿和各北约盟国的协调下飞往班加西与利比亚过渡国民议会进行会晤,也成为第一个在利比亚危机爆发后到访的西方外交部长。眼前所见的一切令我不禁回想起20年前的波兰,当时波兰首届自由选举刚刚落幕,并与在6个月后倒塌的柏林墙一道成为宣告冷战结束的标志性事件

正处于从专制统治向民主过渡进程中的人们——1989年的波兰是和平过渡,而如今的利比亚则相当血腥——总是在决定其未来数十年命运的决策上踌躇不定。应该如何处置那些前政权的罪魁祸首和秘密警察,以及一大批秘密文件?是否应该禁止前执政党的一切活动?宗教在公共事务中应该扮演什何种角色?在宪政体制的选择方面,是该实施总统制还是议会制?

前共产主义国家在20年前先后做出了上述选择。不管效果好坏,波兰、匈牙利、捷克斯洛伐克、波罗的海诸国、前苏联内部,中亚和东德都选择了自身独特的道路。而这些选择的结果最终汇集成为一个充满经验教训的重要数据库。如今的阿拉伯改革者们也可以借此取得我们的成功——同时也避免当年所犯下的错误。

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