Quarante ans de tragédie palestinienne

Il y a quarante ans, Israël s’est emparé de la Cisjordanie, de Gaza et du plateau du Golan après une guerre éclair de six jours qui avait repoussé les armées égyptienne, jordanienne et syrienne. Aujourd’hui, l’idée de mettre un terme à l’occupation des territoires palestiniens commencée lors de ce mois de juin semble un rêve plus lointain que jamais.

Le chaos et la guerre civile dignes de la Somalie qui ravagent Gaza aujourd’hui, et qui découlent de cette situation sans issue datant de plusieurs décennies, sont en partie la conséquence de politiques israéliennes mal conçues, et en partie la faute d’une administration américaine qui, pendant six longues années, a fait de la cause de la paix israélo-palestinienne la dernière de ses priorités. Mais il est trompeur d’attribuer l’échec des Palestiniens à développer un système méthodique d’autogouvernement uniquement aux effets pernicieux de l’occupation israélienne et aux politiques américaines.

La crise palestinienne est avant tout une crise de leadership. Certes, Yasser Arafat n’avait rien d’un démocrate modèle, mais son charisme et son flair politique étaient cruciaux pour maintenir la cohésion de toutes les factions palestiniennes. Aujourd’hui, pas même le Fatah, le propre parti d’Arafat, ne peut prétendre être une organisation cohérente. La victoire électorale du Hamas en janvier 2006 était en grande partie imputable à la fragmentation du Fatah sous le successeur d’Arafat, Mahmoud Abbas.

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