La tradition des souvenirs ensevelis

La manière dont les victimes se rappellent leur traumatisme constitue la question la plus controversée de la psychologie et de la psychiatrie actuelles. Pour beaucoup de théoriciens du traumatisme clinique, les combats, les viols et autres expériences terrifiantes semblent se graver dans l'esprit et ne sont jamais oubliées.

D'autres ne sont pas du même avis, et pensent que le cerveau peut se protéger en bannissant les souvenirs des traumatismes de la conscience, ce qui rend difficile aux victimes de se souvenir de leurs expériences les plus horrifiantes jusqu'à ce qu'ils puissent le faire en sécurité bien des années plus tard. Bien qu'ils reconnaissent que les traumatismes sont souvent bien trop mémorables, certains théoriciens des traumatismes cliniques affirment qu'une réaction appelée “amnésie dissociative traumatique” laisse une minorité conséquente de victimes incapables de se rappeler leur traumatisme, précisément parce qu'il leur inspirait une terreur si accablante.

Cependant, ces théoriciens du traumatisme clinique ne prétendent pas que les souvenirs “refoulés” ou “dissociés” d'événements horribles soient inertes ou bénins. Au contraire, ces souvenirs ensevelis empoisonnent en silence la vie des victimes, provoquant des symptômes psychiatriques apparemment inexplicables, et doivent être exhumés si l'on veut pouvoir soigner.

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