Ryba, které ubylo

Před tisíci lety norští osadníci v mém rodném městě Yorku jedli tresky, které vážily až osm kilogramů. Víme to díky archeologům a jejich zaujetí pro středověká odpadiště. Dnes však budete mít štěstí, když najdete tresku s hmotností přes dva kilogramy. Co jsme to rybí populaci provedli, že došlo k takovým změnám? A záleží na tom?

Rybolovné politiky jsou sestaveny tak, aby malým rybám umožnily vyrůst. Má to ten nejlepší důvod - ryby chycené jako příliš malé zajistí jen nevelký výnos. Navíc by ryby neměly příležitost k reprodukci, což by ohrožovalo celkový stav ryb. Například, zveřejněným záměrem společné rybolovné politiky EU je „chránit zdroje ryb tím, že se bude regulovat množství ryb vylovených z moře, že se mladým rybám umožní reprodukce a že se zajistí, aby byla opatření dodržována."

Jak už to však vypadá, své zásoby ryb jsme důkladně lovili tak dlouho, až dnes zůstalo jen několik velkých, starých jedinců. Dobře to uvidíme na příkladu tresky obecné. Předpokládejme, že na začátku máme deset tisíc ročních jedinců. Bude-li působit jen přirozená úmrtnost, věku osmi let se dožije asi tisíc těchto jedinců. Rozumná míra úmrtnosti v důsledku rybolovu sníží počet přeživších ryb na asi sto kusů. Avšak míra úmrtnosti ryb v důsledku rybářské činnosti, již jsme vyvíjeli v posledních dvaceti letech, snížila počet přeživších ryb na zhruba tři.

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