Die Haushaltskrise in den unteren Ebenen

PALO ALTO – Subnationale Verwaltungseinheiten – Bundesstaaten, Länder, Städte, Provinzen, Kommunen und Bezirke – spielen in verschiedenen Ländern unterschiedliche Rollen, aber normalerweise stellen sie wichtige öffentliche Leistungen wie Polizei und Feuerwehren, öffentliche Verkehrsmittel, Bildung, Gesundheitsversorgung und Sozialleistungen bereit. In vielen Ländern sind diese Verwaltungseinheiten jedoch unter dem Gewicht von Missmanagement und der globalen Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise finanziell zusammengebrochen.  

Die generelle Aufteilung der Verantwortlichkeiten zur Bereitstellung und Finanzierung öffentlicher Leistungen ist in den Beziehungen zwischen subnationalen und zentralen Regierungen ebenso geregelt wie die Einhebung von Steuern und nationale Subventionen, mit denen zumindest teilweise verschiedene Leistungen auf lokaler Ebene finanziert werden.

In den Vereinigten Staaten trägt die Bundesregierung primär die Verantwortung für Verteidigung, staatliche Renten (Sozialversicherung) und die Gesundheitsversorgung für alte Menschen. Die subnationalen Regierungen sind für Bildung und Gesetzesvollzug zuständig. Die Gesundheitsversorgung für Arme (Medicaid) ist ein gemeinsamer Verantwortungsbereich. Entsprechende Mittel fließen nach Berechnung aufgrund verschiedener, nach den Richtlinien gemeinsamer Verantwortung definierter Formeln von der Bundesregierung zu den entsprechenden Stellen in den Bundesstaaten oder auf lokaler Ebene. Manche dieser Formeln ermöglichen subnationalen Regierungen weitestgehenden Ermessensspielraum, andere nicht.

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