L’enfer de la crise fiscale

PALO ALTO – Selon les pays, les administrations sous-nationales – états, pays, régions, agglomérations, villes, voire quartiers – jouent un rôle différent, mais rendent en général des services publics tels que brigades de police et de pompiers, transports, éducation, sans oublier les prestations sanitaires et sociales. Dans de nombreux pays, la fiscalité s’est effondrée à cause d’une mauvaise gestion combinée à la crise mondiale économique et financière.

En général, less administrations centrales et sous-nationales se répartissent les responsabilités en matière de fourniture et de financement des services publics, les subventions nationales qui servent au moins en partie aux services rendus à échelle locale et le prélèvement des impôts.

Aux Etats-Unis, le gouvernement fédéral a pour responsabilité première la défense, les pensions pour personnes âgées (Social Security) et des soins de santé pour les personnes âgées (Medicare) ; les gouvernements sous-nationaux sont responsables de l’éducation et de l’application de la loi. Le financement des soins pour les pauvres (Medicaid) est une responsabilité partagée par les deux. Le gouvernement fédéral donne des fonds appropriés aux états et aux administrations locales par le biais de conventions déterminant les responsabilités partagées. Certaines de ces conventions accordent une grande discrétion aux gouvernements, d’autres non.

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