Čerstvý pohled na ženskou mystiku

OLYMPIA, USA – Na letošek připadá 45. výročí vydání knihy Betty Friedanové Ženská mystika . Mnozí sociální konzervativci dodnes Friedanovou a feminismus viní z ponoukání žen k opuštění domova ve prospěch pracoviště, a tedy z destabilizace rodin a ohrožování jejich dětí.

Feminismus byl ale vždy spíš reakcí na vstup žen do řad pracovních sil než jeho příčinou. V západní Evropě a ve Spojených státech raný kapitalismus přitáhl obrovské spousty mladých svobodných žen do průmyslu, například textilního. Majitelé textilek často stavěli ubytovny, aby mladým dělnicím poskytli přístřeší. Mnohé z těchto pracovnic se staly prvními příznivkyněmi hnutí proti otroctví a za ženská práva, zatímco příslušnicím střední třídy dodala energii (a občas i důvod k závisti) právě průbojná účast pracujících žen ve veřejné sféře.

V době, kdy v roce 1963 Friedanové kniha vyšla, už kapitalismus do expandujících sektorů služeb, administrativy a informací nasával vdané ženy. Friedanové myšlenky oslovily generaci žen, jež začínaly považovat placenou práci za něco víc než jen za dočasný přeryv mezi dospíváním a manželstvím a byly frustrovány neodbytností společnosti, že jediným smyslem jejich života má být úloha ženy v domácnosti.

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