الفتنة النسائية من جديد

أوليمبيا، واشنطن ـ في هذا العام تحل ذكرى مرور خمسة وأربعين عاماً منذ نشر مجلة ampquot;الفتنة النسائيةampquot; ( The Feminine Mystique )، لصاحبتها بيتي فريدان . وحتى اليوم ما زال العديد من المحافظين الاجتماعيين يحمـِّلون فريدان والحركة النسائية المسؤولية عن حض النساء على هجر بيوتهن والنزول إلى معترك العمل، وبالتالي زعزعة استقرار الأسرة وتعريض الأطفال للخطر.

بيد أن الحركة النسائية كانت عبارة عن تجاوب مع دخول النساء إلى قوة العمل أكثر منها سبباً له. ففي أوروبا الغربية والولايات المتحدة اجتذبت الرأسمالية المبكرة أعداداً هائلة من النساء الشابات غير المتزوجات إلى صناعات مثل النسيج. وكان مالكو المصانع في كثير من الأحيان يبنون مهاجع لإسكان العاملات الشابات، ولقد أصبح العديد من هؤلاء العاملات من أوائل المؤيدين لكل من حركة مناهضة العبودية وحركة حقوق النساء، بينما أثارت مشاركة النساء العاملات النشطة في المجال العام حماس نساء الطبقة المتوسطة، بل وحسدهن في بعض الأحيان.

وحين صدر كتاب فريدان في العام 1963، كانت الرأسمالية تجتذب النساء المتزوجات في قطاعات مثل الخدمات المتوسعة، والأعمال الكتابية والسكرتارية، والمعلومات. وكانت أفكار فريدان تخاطب جيلاً من النسوة اللاتي بدأن ينظرن إلى العمل المدفوع الأجر باعتباره شيئاً أكثر من مجرد فاصل مؤقت بين سن المراهقة والزواج، واللاتي كن يشعرن بالإحباط إزاء إصرار المجتمع على أن يظل المغزى الوحيد من حياتهن محصوراً في دورهن كربات بيوت.

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