Le complot de la transparence

SOFIA – La disparition de toute confiance envers les institutions démocratiques et les dirigeants politiques est l'une des conséquences les plus troublantes de la crise financière. En 2012, le "Baromètre de la confiance", le sondage réalisé par la firme de relations publiques internationale Edelman a enregistré la chute de confiance la plus importante jamais mesurée à l'égard de l'Etat. "Plus de transparence", le nouveau mantra des militants de la moralité en politique et d'un nombre croissant de gouvernements démocratiques, suffira-t-il à renverser cette tendance ?

On  pourrait espérer que la combinaison des nouvelles technologies, des données publiques ouvertes et du renouveau de l'engagement civique aide les citoyens à exercer un contrôle plus efficace sur leurs élus. Mais l'idée que la transparence permettra de restaurer la confiance dans la démocratie repose sur des hypothèses incertaines, la première étant que "si l'on savait", tout serait différent.

Malheureusement, les choses ne sont pas aussi simples. La transparence de l'Etat ne suffit pas à l'émergence d'un citoyen informé, et davantage de contrôle n'entraîne pas nécessairement une plus grande confiance dans les institutions. Ainsi les Américains ont réélu le président W. Bush tout en sachant qu'il avait lancé les USA dans la guerre en Irak sans preuve de l'existence d'armes de destruction massive. De la même manière, les Italiens ont maintenu Berlusconi au pouvoir pendant plus de 10 ans malgré un flot continu de révélations sur ses écarts de conduite et ses agissements en marge de la légalité.

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