Cómo equilibrar a los tecnócratas

ESTAMBUL – Una visión simplista (en realidad, ingenua) de los mercados es que dichos mercados existen casi en un “estado natural”, y que el mejor de los mundos es uno en el que dichos mercados estén libres para operar sin interferencia del gobierno. Una visión igualmente simplista de la democracia es que es un sistema político en el que se celebran contiendas electorales periódicas que dan al ganador el derecho a gobernar sin restricción.

Por supuesto que la realidad es mucho más compleja. Los mercados sólo pueden funcionar dentro de un marco institucional y legal que incluye leyes y normas sobre derechos de propiedad, cumplimiento de contratos, controles de calidad e información, y muchas otras normas que regulan las transacciones.

Del mismo modo, mientras que las contiendas electorales son esenciales para cualquier sistema democrático, una actitud hacia los resultados electorales en la que el “ganador se lleva todo” y concentra el poder, es incompatible con la democracia en el largo plazo. Las democracias que funcionan bien están insertas en complejas leyes constitucionales y en otras leyes que separan los poderes ejecutivos, legislativos y judiciales, y que protegen las libertades de expresión, reunión y de disidencia pacífica por parte de quienes pierden las elecciones.

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