Ausgleich technokratischer Macht

ISTANBUL – Eine simplifizierende (tatsächlich naive) Ansicht der Märkte besagt, dass sie beinahe in einem „Naturzustand“ existierten und dass die Beste aller Welten eine sei, in der sie frei von staatlicher Einmischung operieren könnten. Eine gleichermaßen simplifizierende Ansicht der Demokratie besagt, dass sie ein politisches System sei, in dem periodische kompetitive Wahlen dem Gewinner das Recht gäben, uneingeschränkt zu regieren.

Die Wirklichkeit ist natürlich viel komplexer. Märkte können nur innerhalb eines institutionellen und rechtlichen Rahmens funktionieren, der Eigentumsrechte, die Durchsetzung von Verträgen, die Kontrolle von Qualität und Informationen und viele andere Regeln für Transaktionen vorsieht.

In ähnlicher Weise sind kompetitive Wahlen zwar für jedes demokratische System eine Grundvoraussetzung, doch ist eine Haltung in Bezug auf das Wahlergebnis nach dem Motto „Der Gewinner nimmt alles“, bei der der Sieger die Macht bei sich konzentriert, mit der Demokratie langfristig nicht vereinbar. Gut funktionierende Demokratien sind in ein komplexes Verfassungsrecht und andere Gesetze eingebettet, die Exekutive, Legislative und Judikative voneinander trennen und die Redefreiheit, Vereinigungsfreiheit und die friedlich zum Ausdruck gebrachten abweichenden Meinungen der Wahlverlierer schützen.

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