موازنة التكنوقراط

إسطنبول ــ ثمة نظرة تبسيطية (ساذجة في واقع الأمر) للأسواق مفادها أنها توجد في حالة أشبه بـ"حالة الطبيعة"، وأن العالم الأفضل على الإطلاق هو عالم تتمتع فيه الأسواق بالحرية وتعمل دون تدخل من الحكومة. وتزعم وجهة نظر أخرى لا تقل عن هذا تبسيطاً أن الديمقراطية نظام سياسي حيث تعطي انتخابات تنافسية دورية الفائز الحف في الحكم دون أية قيود.

بيد أن الواقع أكثر من هذا تعقيداً بطبيعة الحال. فالأسواق لا تؤدي وظيفتها إلا ضمن إطار مؤسسي وقانوني يشمل حقوق الملكية، وإنفاذ العقود، وضوابط الجودة والمعلومات، فضلاً عن قواعد أخرى كثيرة تحكم المعاملات.

وعلى نحو مماثل، ففي حين تشكل الانتخابات التنافسية ضرورة أساسية لأي نظام ديمقراطي، فإن موقف "الفائز يحصل على كل شيء" في التعامل مع النتائج الانتخابية، حيث يستأثر المنتصر بالسلطة، لا يتوافق مع الديمقراطية في الأمد البعيد. إن الديمقراطيات العاملة بشكل كامل تضرب بجذور عميقة في القوانين الدستورية المعقدة وغير ذلك من القوانين التي تفصل بين السلطات التنفيذية والتشريعية والقضائية، والتي تحمي حرية التعبير، والتجمع، والمعارضة السليمة من جانب أولئك الذين يخسرون الانتخابات.

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