El cortocircuito del automóvil eléctrico

PRAGA – Durante décadas, la idea de un automóvil eléctrico ha conquistado la imaginación de innovadores –incluidos desde hace más de un siglo Henry Ford y Thomas Edison. Celebridades, expertos y líderes políticos han proyectado estos vehículos como la apoteosis de un futuro responsable con el medio ambiente. La canciller alemana, Angela Merkel, anunció que habría un millón de automóviles eléctricos en la Autobahn para 2020. Del mismo modo, el presidente, Barack Obama, aseguró que habría un millón de autos eléctricos en los Estados Unidos –pero cinco años antes.

En efecto, algún día el automóvil eléctrico será un gran producto –pero no ahora. Cuesta demasiado, es incómodo y sus beneficios ambientales son insignificantes (y en algunos casos nulos).

Muchos países desarrollados ofrecen fabulosos subsidios para los automóviles eléctricos: apoyos que alcanzan hasta 7,500 dólares en los Estados Unidos, 8,500 dólares en Canadá, 9,000 euros (11,700 dólares) en Bélgica e incluso 6,000 euros en la España empobrecida. Dinamarca otorga el subsidio más generoso de todos, pues exime a los automóviles eléctricos del impuesto marginal de matriculación de 180% aplicable en el país a los demás vehículos. En el caso del automóvil eléctrico más popular del mundo, Nissan Leaf, esta exención equivale a 63,000 euros.

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