معضلة السيارة الكهربائية

براغ ــ لعقود من الزمان، أسرت فكرة السيارة الكهربائية مخيلة المبدعين ــ بما في ذلك هنري فورد وتوماس أديسون قبل أكثر من قرن من الزمان. وكان المشاهير، والمثقفون، والخبراء، والزعماء السياسيون على السواء يصورون هذه المركبات وكأنها المثل الأعلى لمستقبل مسؤول بيئيا. وأعلنت المستشارة الألمانية أنجيلا ميركل أن مليون سيارة كهربائية سوف تجري على الطرق السريعة في ألمانيا بحلول عام 2020. وعلى نحو مماثل، وعد الرئيس باراك أوباما بمليون سيارة كهربائية في الولايات المتحدة ــ ولكن قبل ذلك التاريخ بخمس سنوات.

ذات يوم، سوف تصبح السيارة الكهربائية منتجاً عظيماً حقا ــ ولكن ليس الآن. فهي باهظة التكاليف؛ وهي غير مريحة؛ والفوائد البيئية المترتبة عليها تكاد لا تُذكَر (وفي بعض الحالات قد لا يكون لها أي فائدة على الإطلاق).

إن العديد من البلدان المتقدمة تقدم إعانات دعم سخية للسيارات الكهربائية: تصل إلى 7500 دولار في الولايات المتحدة، و8500 دولار في كندا، و9000 يورو (11700 دولار) في بلجيكا، و6000 يورو حتى في أسبانيا التي تعاني من ضائقة مالية. وتقدم الدنمرك إعانة الدعم الأكثر سخاءً على الإطلاق، فتعفي السيارات الكهربائية من ضريبة التسجيل الهامشية التي تبلغ 180% على كل المركبات الأخرى. وبالنسبة للسيارة الكهربائية الأكثر شعبية على مستوى العالم، وهي السيارة نيسان ليف، فإن هذا الإعفاء يعادل 63 ألف يورو.

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