Berlin Wall Patrick Hertzog/AFP/Getty Images

The Fall of the Wall Revisited

Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998, was one of the giants of postwar Europe, having presided over Germany’s reunification and pushed for the creation of the EU single market and the euro. In November 1999, on the tenth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, Kohl offered his reflections on that event's enduring meaning.

BERLIN: I learned that the Berlin Wall was falling during an official visit to Poland ten years ago. On the evening of November 9th, Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki invited my delegation to a banquet in the former palace of Prince Radziwill. Before arriving at dinner, the Secretary of the Chancellery, Rudolf Seiters, called from Bonn. He told me that the district chairman of communist East Berlin had suddenly announced temporary regulations permitting travel by private citizens. Permits to visit the West were to be granted to all applicants even on short notice.

With that simple decision, I knew that German history would soon change, for easier travel meant that the Wall was passable for everyone. Still, at first I did not foresee those spectacular and joyous night time celebrations that were about to take place in Berlin.

Throughout my career I never doubted that Germany would one day regain its unity some time in the future. But I never dared to dream that reunion of east and west would happen during my term as Chancellor. Only with Mikhail Gorbachev and his policies of perestroika and glasnost did reunification become a real possibility. Without Gorbachev and his singular courage, the stream of events across Europe during fall of 1989 never would have been possible.

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