Европеизация России

Менее чем за четыре года в России произошло невероятное количество удивительных перемен. Макроэкономическая стабилизация еще только началась. В основании быстрого восстановления экономики лежит возникновение общепризнанных фундаментальных политических ценностей. Никто не сомневается в том, что основой экономической жизни должна быть частная собственность. Жесткая монетарная и налоговая политика сейчас стали de rigueur - "требуемыми этикетом" - (до сих пор печатание денег для финансирования бюджетного дефицита многими считалось приемлемым). Все основные политические силы (даже левые) поддерживают снижение налогов.

Короче говоря, идеологические рудименты коммунистической экономики были сметены. Достижение широкого политического согласия означает, что изменения в институциональной сфере сейчас стали более целенаправленными и последовательными. И в самом деле, консолидация российских политических партий дала российскому правительству стабильное парламентское большинство, впервые с момента начала посткоммунистического переходного периода.

Но в отличие от экономической стабилизации, почти универсальные правила не применимы к институциональной реформе. Хотя и наблюдался значительный прогресс в создании правовой основы стратегического плана, обнародованного правительством в 2000 году (так называемая "программа Грефа", названная так по фамилии министра экономики Германа Грефа), какого-либо прорыва в этом направлении еще не достигнуто. Из более ста реформ, запланированных на 2000-2001 год, немногим более дюжины было реализовано полностью.

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