Die Europäisierung Russlands

In weniger als vier Jahren hat sich in Russland ein erstaunlich tiefgreifender Wandel vollzogen. Die makroökonomische Stabilisierung ist dabei nur der Anfang. Der raschen wirtschaftlichen Erholung liegt die Schaffung einer Reihe grundlegender politischer Werte zu Grunde. Ob Privateigentum die Basis des wirtschaftlichen Geschehens sein sollte, stellt niemand infrage. Eine rigorose Politik im monetären und steuerlichen Bereich ist momentan de rigueur (bis vor kurzem fand kaum jemand etwas dabei, zur Finanzierung des Budgetdefizits die Banknotenpresse in Betrieb zu setzen). Alle wichtigen politischen Kräfte (sogar die Linke) unterstützen Steuersenkungen.

Kurzum, die ideologischen Überreste der kommunistischen Planwirtschaft sind über Bord geworfen worden. Mit dem Erreichen eines breiten politischen Konsenses kann nun der institutionelle Wandel zweckorientierter und einheitlicher über die Bühne gehen. So hat die Konsolidierung der politischen Parteien zum ersten Mal seit Beginn der postkommunistischen Reformen dazu geführt, dass die russische Regierung über eine stabile parlamentarische Mehrheit verfügt.

Im Gegensatz zur wirtschaftlichen Stabilisierung sind die beinahe universellen Regeln jedoch nicht auf institutionelle Reformen anwendbar. Obwohl es auf gesetzlicher Ebene in dem von der Regierung im Jahr 2000 vorgestellten Strategieplan (das nach dem Wirtschaftsminister German Gref benannte "Gref-Programm") zwar beträchtliche Fortschritte gab, kann man nicht von einem Durchbruch sprechen. Von den hunderten Reformen, die für die Jahre 2000 und 2001 geplant waren, wurden erst ein gutes Dutzend vollständig durchgeführt.

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