Peligra la unidad europea

BERLÍN – Hace pocas semanas, parecía que lo peor de la crisis financiera europea había quedado atrás y que se avecinaba un retorno de la estabilidad. Pero las apariencias engañaron. Un problema que (al menos en términos relativos) podría haber sido menor, el de Chipre, se combinó con un grado de incompetencia casi increíble de parte de la “troika” (la Comisión Europea, el Banco Central Europeo y el Fondo Monetario Internacional) y se convirtió en una crisis de grandes proporciones.

Aunque los mercados mantuvieron la calma, la crisis chipriota dejó al descubierto en toda su magnitud el desastre político causado por la crisis de la eurozona: la Unión Europea se está desintegrando desde el núcleo. En la actualidad, los europeos atraviesan una crisis de confianza respecto de Europa, que no se puede resolver con otra inyección de liquidez por parte del BCE y que, por tanto, es mucho más peligrosa que una recaída de los mercados.

Europa tuvo en el pasado un orden político basado en la competencia, la desconfianza, el conflicto de poderes y, en última instancia, la guerra entre estados soberanos. Ese orden se vino abajo el 8 de mayo de 1945, y en su lugar surgió otro sistema basado en la confianza mutua, la solidaridad, el imperio de la ley y la búsqueda de soluciones negociadas. Pero ahora que la crisis está socavando los cimientos de este orden, la confianza se convierte en desconfianza, la solidaridad sucumbe ante viejos prejuicios (e incluso, a nuevos odios entre el sur pobre y el norte rico) y las salidas negociadas ceden paso a la imposición externa. Y una vez más, Alemania desempeña un papel fundamental en este proceso de desintegración.

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