Dix ans d’Euro

PALO ALTO – Le début de l’année 2009 restera dans les mémoires comme synonyme d’actualité économique désastreuse et de politiques économiques polémiques dans presque tous les pays. Il marque aussi le 10e anniversaire de la création de l’euro, la monnaie commune qui rapproche encore un peu plus des centaines de millions d’Européens par le biais de leurs affaires économiques et financières. Il vaut la peine de s’arrêter un instant pour commémorer ce remarquable événement, et étudier l’impact de l’euro sur la crise mondiale actuelle.

L’euro a été lancé en janvier 1999 pour un ensemble de raisons complexes, économiques, financières, politiques et historiques. C’était la cerise finale sur le gâteau élaboré par de nombreux dirigeants d’après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, conduits par le souvenir de deux horribles guerres mondiales nées en Europe et qui l’avaient consumée au cours du demi-siècle précédent, afin de créer des liens économiques et politiques plus solides.

Il y a dix ans, le lancement de la nouvelle monnaie suscitait de vraies inquiétudes. Les gens allaient-ils abandonner leur monnaie et utiliser le nouvel euro ? Celui-ci se maintiendrait-il face au dollar ? (Lancé à 1,18 $, il commença par plonger à presque 0,80 $ puis repartit à la hausse, avec un pic à près de 1,60 $ en 2007-2008, avant de redescendre autour de 1,30 $.)

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