الاتحاد الأوروبي ومرآة فيينا

إذا ما قُـدِّر لأحد البيروقراطيين من مسئولي الاتحاد الأوروبي أن يسافر إلى fin de siècle في فيينا فلسوف يندهش من الشبه الكبير بين الاتحاد الأوروبي اليوم وبين إمبراطورية هابسبورغ. فمثله كمثل الاتحاد الأوروبي، كان الكيان النمساوي المجري عبارة عن تجربة في هندسة تخطي الحدود القومية، تضم 51 مليون إنسان، وتشتمل على إحدى عشرة جنسية وأربع عشرة لغة. وكان يحكم هذا العالم الصغير في أوروبا إمبراطور-ملك مزدوج العرش وبرلمان مزدوج يمثل نصفي المملكة النمساوي والمجري المستقلين إلى حد كبير.

لقد عملت إمبراطورية هابسبورغ كعامل استقرار لشعوبها ولأوروبا. وبالنسبة لمجموعاتها العرقية المبعثرة، فقد لعبت دور الحكم والحارس في نفس الوقت، فعملت على تهدئة الخصومات المحلية وحماية الدول الصغيرة من الدول الجشعة. كما عملت على سد الخواء الجغرافي السياسي في قلب القارة، ففرضت الضوابط على ألمانيا وروسيا.

وطالما كانت تؤدي هذه الوظائف، كانت النمسا يُـنظَر إليها باعتبارها ampquot;ضرورة أوروبيةampquot; ـ أداة توازن بين الجنسيات والأمم المختلفة ولا يوجد لها بديل يمكن تصوره. ولكن مع السنوات الأولى من القرن العشرين واجهت الإمبراطورية مشكلتين ألقيتا بظلال من الشك على قدرتها على الإضطلاع بهذه المهام.

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