¿La próxima prioridad de la UE tras la ampliación? El desafío americano

La cumbre de la Unión Europea que acaba de terminar en Copenhague ha definido más o menos las fronteras futuras de la UE. Diez nuevos miembros, desde Europa Central al Mediterráneo, serán admitidos en el año 2004. Dos otros países, Bulgaria y Rumania, pueden aspirar a unirse tres años después. Turquía, tras muchos reclamos y bravatas, ha logrado que se reafirme su estatus como candidato a la unión oficialmente reconocido, si bien persisten poderosas dudas acerca de cuándo se unirá realmente.

Debido a que esta ronda de ampliación probablemente será la última en un largo tiempo, si es que no para siempre, para los estados miembros es urgente pensar seriamente en reescribir los tratados de la UE con el fin de enfrentar la nueva realidad, en términos que sean prácticos en el largo plazo. En particular, los estados miembros deberán pensar mucho más radicalmente sobre el desarrollo de una política sólida de seguridad y relaciones exteriores para la UE, por dos razones.

En primer lugar, la ampliación pondrá a la UE justo en la frontera con Rusia y la ex Unión Soviética; si Turquía se une, se extenderá hasta el corazón del Medio Oriente también. En segundo lugar, el contexto internacional en que opera la UE está siendo transformado por la revolución estratégica que se está produciendo en Washington. En los últimos 50 años, la UE en gran medida podía contar con una colaboración benigna con los Estados Unidos en un contexto multilateral; ese supuesto ya no tiene base, incluso si no conocemos aún en toda su extensión el nuevo unilateralismo de EEUU.

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