Kyoto et le jeu de dupe de l'UE

RIGA – Chaque année, la crise liée au réchauffement climatique paraît se rapprocher. Il va bientôt être trop tard pour des actions préventives. Le mantra aux trois chiffres magiques de l’Union européenne (20 - 20 - 20) vise à limiter de 20% les émissions de gaz à effet de serre par rapport à leur niveau de 1990 et à augmenter de 20% la part des énergies renouvelables à l'horizon 2020. Mais cet objectif est-il vraiment réaliste ?

L'UE paraît avoir depuis longtemps un rôle leader dans la lutte contre le changement climatique. En matière de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, elle s'est engagée en 1994 à respecter les objectifs du Protocole de Kyoto qu'elle a ratifié en 2002. Les 15 membres de l'UE se sont engagés à parvenir à une baisse de 8% en 2010.

Les pays industriels qui n'ont pas ratifié ce protocole, en tout premier lieu les USA, ont été critiqués pour leur comportement irresponsable. Mais durant les 15 ans de la période 1990-2005, les 15 pays de l'UE n'ont réduit leurs émissions que de 2% et il est maintenant évident - hormis pour 5 d'entre eux - qu'ils ne vont pas atteindre les objectifs fixés. Dans le meilleur des cas, ils parviendront à une réduction de 4,6% en 2010, au lieu de 8%. Leur échec n'est pas surprenant. Par contre, ce qui est surprenant, c'est la manière dont ils ont réussi à faire passer cet échec pour un succès.

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