Le Train Europe-Istambul

Le monde islamique et le monde non islamique semblent aujourd'hui enfermés dans le cercle vicieux de la haine, ce qui renforce l'opinion des modérés des deux camps selon laquelle les divisions politiques et culturelles sont trop importantes pour pouvoir être réconciliées. Cette vision fataliste est dangereuse et pourrait se transformer en cauchemar s'accomplissant de lui-même. Dans ce contexte, le marchandage que l'Europe impose à la Turquie quant à son appartenance à l'Union européenne prend un sens spécial pour le monde.

L'entrée de la Turquie sera certainement discutée en décembre, lors de la rencontre des leaders européens au sommet de Copenhague. Depuis les années 1960, l'Europe de l'Ouest tient des propos inconsidérés sur l'adhésion de la Turquie à la Communauté européenne d'alors, aujourd'hui l'Union européenne. Mais aucun geste dans ce sens n'a été fait puisque l'Europe démontre régulièrement, et à juste raison, que la Turquie n'a pas atteint les conditions fixées pour son adhésion, surtout en ce qui concerne les droits de l'homme et la séparation constitutionnelle de la justice et du pouvoir.

Pourtant, sous ces questions particulières se retrouve une inquiétude plus générale : l'Europe pourra-t-elle accepter la Turquie, une société islamiste, dans le giron européen à n'importe quelles conditions ? Les sentiments anti-islamiques sont bien ancrés dans toute l'Europe, reflet de 1 000 années de rivalité, de guerre et d'affrontements culturels. En grand nombre, les Turcs craignent que l'exclusion de leur pays de l'UE n'ait rien à voir avec des politiques ou des institutions particulières, mais plutôt avec l'hostilité européenne permanente envers les sociétés islamiques.

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