La carta de Etiopía

BRUSELAS – Hace veinte años, Etiopía era un campo de batalla de la Guerra Fría. En el mapa ideológico del mundo, era territorio soviético, una tierra de hambruna, dictadura y guerra civil. Pero, con el derrocamiento de la dictadura marxista-leninista de Mengistu Haile Mariam en 1991, Etiopía inició un proceso de transformación. Hoy, se ubica entre las cinco economías de más rápido crecimiento del mundo, y es un bastión de estabilidad regional.

Esa estabilidad es relevante, porque el Cuerno de África se está convirtiendo, una vez más, en un dolor de cabeza para la seguridad. Si la región ha de estabilizare, Etiopía necesitará desempeñar un papel clave. De hecho, se lo debería considerar un socio estratégico indispensable para quienes, en la comunidad internacional, quieren impedir que todo el este de África sucumba en el caos.

Por otra parte, la anarquía interminable de la vecina Somalia, los desafíos regionales que enfrenta Etiopía y su primer ministro de larga data en funciones, Meles Zenawi, resultan amedrentadores. El país sigue estando en pie de guerra con Eritrea por el disputado poblado fronterizo de Badme. El acuerdo de paz entre el gobierno y el ex SPLM rebelde se está desovillando a toda marcha en el vecino Sudán, donde un referendo programado en el sur en enero de 2011 sobre sucesión e independencia –parte del acuerdo de paz de 2005- puede dar pie a un retorno a una guerra declarada.

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