El muro eterno

PARÍS. – Los muros concebidos para mantener a personas dentro o fuera de ellos –ya estén en Berlín, Nicosia, Israel o Corea– son siempre producto del miedo: el de los dirigentes alemanes orientales a un éxodo en masa de sus ciudadanos en busca de libertad y dignidad; el de los dirigentes grecochipriotas y turcochipriotas a una guerra continua; el de los israelíes al terrorismo o el de los dirigentes de Corea del Norte al “abandono” por parte de su martirizado pueblo. Paralizar un status quo , consolidar la posición propia o permanecer separado de otros, vistos como tentaciones o amenazas (o ambas cosas): ésos han sido siempre los objetivos de los políticos que construyen muros.

¿Por qué hay semejante diferencia entre el destino de Berlín, ahora capital en la que el progreso del presente va cubriendo lentamente las cicatrices del pasado, y el destino de Nicosia, donde el tiempo ha quedado paralizado, o el de Israel, cuyo “muro de seguridad” se amplía como una cicatriz reciente, por no citar la improbable consolidación del régimen norcoreano tras sus muros de paranoia y opresión?

Para entender esas diferentes situaciones, hemos de tener en cuenta la voluntad de la gente de destruir sus muros en el caso de la Alemania Oriental, de ampliarlos en el caso de Israel y de paralizarlos en el de Chipre y del gobierno de Corea del Norte. Naturalmente, las cualidades –o falta de ellas– de los dirigentes respectivos son también un factor importante.

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