Le mur  éternel

PARIS – Les murs conçus pour enfermer ou pour tenir à distance, qu’ils soient à Berlin, Nicosie, en Israël ou en Corée, sont toujours le produit de la crainte : celle des responsables est-allemands face à une fuite massive de leurs citoyens en quête de liberté et de dignité, celle des autorités chypriotes grecques et turques face à la guerre, la crainte des israéliens face au terrorisme, ou celles des autorités nord-coréennes d’être « abandonnées » par leurs populations martyrisées. Ce que recherchent les responsables politiques qui construisent un mur a toujours été de stabiliser un status-quo fragile, de consolider leur position ou pour se maintenir à l’écart des autres, perçus comme source de tentation ou de peur, ou des deux.

Pourquoi une telle différence entre le destin de Berlin, désormais ville capitale dans laquelle les progrès du présent parviennent à peine à recouvrir les cicatrices du passé, et celui de Nicosie, où le temps s’est figé, ou celui d’Israël, dont le « mur de sécurité » s’allonge tel une cicatrice toute fraiche, sans parler du régime nord-coréen dont il semble improbable qu’il puisse se consolider derrière ses murs de paranoïa et d’oppression.

Pour comprendre ces différentes situations, il faut prendre la mesure de la volonté des peuples à détruire leur mur, dans le cas de l’Allemagne de l’est, à le rallonger, comme en Israël, ou à le figer, comme dans le cas de Chypre et du gouvernement nord-coréen. Les qualités des responsables politiques respectifs - ou leurs incompétences, sont aussi bien sur un facteur important.

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