Jennifer Kohnke

L’essence de Poutine

MOSCOU – Peu de personnes auraient pu imaginer en décembre dernier que les Russes, pour la première fois depuis vingt ans, se soulèveraient et s’uniraient par dizaines de milliers contre le gouvernement, et encore moins Vladimir Poutine, qui prétend récupérer la présidence russe le 4 mars prochain. Contrairement aux rebellions du Printemps arabe, ce ne sont pas les pauvres ou les déshérités du pays qui sont la force motrice de ces manifestations, mais plutôt la classe moyenne urbaine émergente. C’est une différence de taille, car historiquement, les transitions démocratiques réussies ont presque toujours nécessité la mobilisation politique de la classe moyenne.

Ces Russes de la classe moyenne instruits et prospères demandent à être respectés par la hiérarchie du Kremlin qui se complet dans la duperie et la corruption. La goutte qui a fait déborder le vase est la fraude éhontée qui a entaché les élections parlementaires en décembre dernier, et qui a convaincu les citoyens du mépris dont fait preuve le régime à leur égard. Les Russes sont particulièrement scandalisés par Poutine et son arrogance à considérer que le mandat de président puisse être « loué » à des alliés – en l’occurrence Dmitri Medvedev aujourd’hui en exercice – et donc récupérable selon son bon vouloir.

Mais malgré l’ampleur des manifestations à Moscou, Saint Petersburg, et dans d’autres villes, les autorités ont refusé d’honorer l’une des exigences des manifestants, l’annulation des résultats des élections. Il est en effet de plus en plus probable que, d’une façon ou d’une autre, Poutine passera six années supplémentaires à la tête de la Russie.

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