El error de la guerra contra el terrorismo

El fracaso de Israel a la hora de someter a Hezbollah demuestra las muchas debilidades del concepto de guerra contra el terrorismo. Una debilidad reside en que, aún si los blancos son terroristas, las víctimas, muchas veces, son civiles inocentes, y su sufrimiento refuerza la causa terrorista.

En respuesta a los ataques de Hezbollah, se justificó a Israel en su deseo de destruir a Hezbollah y protegerse de la amenaza de los misiles en su frontera. Sin embargo, Israel debería haberse preocupado más por minimizar el daño colateral. Las víctimas civiles y el daño material infligido al Líbano enfurecieron a los musulmanes y a la opinión pública en contra de Israel y las milicias de Hezbollah pasaron de ser agresores a convertirse en héroes de la resistencia. Que el Líbano estuviera debilitado también hizo que resultara más difícil dominar a Hezbollah.

Otra debilidad del concepto de guerra contra el terrorismo es que se basa en la acción militar y descarta cualquier abordaje político. Israel se retiró del Líbano y luego de Gaza unilateralmente, en lugar de hacerlo negociando acuerdos políticos con el gobierno libanés y la autoridad palestina. El fortalecimiento de Hezbollah y Hamas fue una consecuencia directa de esa postura. El concepto de guerra contra el terrorismo se interpone en el camino de reconocer este hecho porque nos separa a “nosotros” de “ellos” y niega que nuestras acciones puedan modelar su comportamiento.

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